Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Nicotiana sylvestris
M-type_MADS Family
Species TF ID Description
XP_009760062.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009761266.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009761267.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009761268.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009763292.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009765099.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009765100.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009768032.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009769491.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009770375.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009770376.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009770377.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009770379.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009770380.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009770753.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009771864.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009772485.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009772504.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009772505.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009772696.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009773053.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009774109.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009774123.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009774462.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009774508.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009776067.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009776268.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009776269.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009776411.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009778768.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009778769.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009779105.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009779179.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009779702.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009780129.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009780151.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009780250.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009781581.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009785023.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009785235.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009785906.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009786318.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009787652.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009787785.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009788110.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009788111.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009788319.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009789447.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009791303.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009792225.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009792226.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009794692.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009794932.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009796162.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009796922.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009797678.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009797733.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009797735.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009797929.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009798759.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009799760.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009801171.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009801509.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009801878.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009802654.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009802745.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009802970.1M-type_MADS family protein
XP_009804996.1M-type_MADS family protein
M-type_MADS (M-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513